The olive is traditionally grown in areas with a Mediterranean type of climate to which it is ideally adapted. Such regions are typified by relatively cool winters where frost seldom occurs and hot dry summers.

The olive will also thrive under irrigation in drier areas. The olive requires sufficient winter chilling to enter rest and so initiate flower development, otherwise the tree remains in a vegetative state. Maximum day temperatures in June and July should not exceed 21ºC.

Frost can seriously damage olive trees, especially young trees and young shoots. Entire trees can die when exposed to temperatures of minus 10 ºC.

Olive trees are less sensitie to damage from moderate wind than other fruit trees.